Converting Tables from Other Storage Engines to InnoDB

To convert a non-InnoDB table to use InnoDB use ALTER TABLE:


Do not convert MySQL system tables in the mysql database (such as user or host) to the InnoDB type. This is an unsupported operation. The system tables must always be of the MyISAM type.

To make an InnoDB table that is a clone of a MyISAM table:

  • Create an empty InnoDB table with identical definitions.

  • Create the appropriate indexes.

  • Insert the rows with INSERT INTO innodb_table SELECT * FROM myisam_table.

You can also create the indexes after inserting the data. Historically, creating new secondary indexes was a slow operation for InnoDB, but this is no longer the case.

If you have UNIQUE constraints on secondary keys, you can speed up a table import by turning off the uniqueness checks temporarily during the import operation:

SET unique_checks=0;
... import operation ...
SET unique_checks=1;

For big tables, this saves disk I/O because InnoDB can use its insert buffer to write secondary index records as a batch. Be certain that the data contains no duplicate keys. unique_checks permits but does not require storage engines to ignore duplicate keys.

To get better control over the insertion process, you might insert big tables in pieces:

INSERT INTO newtable SELECT * FROM oldtable
   WHERE yourkey > something AND yourkey <= somethingelse;

After all records have been inserted, you can rename the tables.

During the conversion of big tables, increase the size of the InnoDB buffer pool to reduce disk I/O, to a maximum of 80% of physical memory. You can also increase the sizes of the InnoDB log files.

Make sure that you do not fill up the tablespace: InnoDB tables require a lot more disk space than MyISAM tables. If an ALTER TABLE operation runs out of space, it starts a rollback, and that can take hours if it is disk-bound. For inserts, InnoDB uses the insert buffer to merge secondary index records to indexes in batches. That saves a lot of disk I/O. For rollback, no such mechanism is used, and the rollback can take 30 times longer than the insertion.

In the case of a runaway rollback, if you do not have valuable data in your database, it may be advisable to kill the database process rather than wait for millions of disk I/O operations to complete. For the complete procedure, see Section, “Forcing InnoDB Recovery”.

If you want all new user-created tables to use the InnoDB storage engine, add the line default-storage-engine=innodb to the [mysqld] section of your server option file.

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