17.1.3.4. Binary Log Options and Variables

You can use the mysqld options and system variables that are described in this section to affect the operation of the binary log as well as to control which statements are written to the binary log. For additional information about the binary log, see Section 5.2.4, “The Binary Log”. For additional information about using MySQL server options and system variables, see Section 5.1.2, “Server Command Options”, and Section 5.1.4, “Server System Variables”.

Startup options used with binary logging.  The following list describes startup options for enabling and configuring the binary log. System variables used with binary logging are discussed later in this section.

  • --binlog-row-event-max-size=N

    Command-Line Format--binlog-row-event-max-size=#
    Option-File Formatbinlog-row-event-max-size
     Permitted Values
    Platform Bit Size32
    Typenumeric
    Default1024
    Range256-4294967295
     Permitted Values
    Platform Bit Size64
    Typenumeric
    Default1024
    Range256-18446744073709547520

    Specify the maximum size of a row-based binary log event, in bytes. Rows are grouped into events smaller than this size if possible. The value should be a multiple of 256. The default is 1024. See Section 17.1.2, “Replication Formats”.

  • --log-bin[=base_name]

    Command-Line Format--log-bin
    Option-File Formatlog-bin
    Variable Namelog_bin
    Variable ScopeGlobal
    Dynamic VariableNo
     Permitted Values
    Typefile name
    DefaultOFF

    Enable binary logging. The server logs all statements that change data to the binary log, which is used for backup and replication. See Section 5.2.4, “The Binary Log”.

    The option value, if given, is the basename for the log sequence. The server creates binary log files in sequence by adding a numeric suffix to the basename. It is recommended that you specify a basename (see Section C.5.8, “Known Issues in MySQL”, for the reason). Otherwise, MySQL uses host_name-bin as the basename.

    Setting this option causes the log_bin system variable to be set to ON (or 1), and not to the basename. This is a known issue; see Bug#19614 for more information.

  • --log-bin-index[=file_name]

    Command-Line Format--log-bin-index=name
    Option-File Formatlog-bin-index
     Permitted Values
    Typefile name
    DefaultOFF

    The index file for binary log file names. See Section 5.2.4, “The Binary Log”. If you omit the file name, and if you did not specify one with --log-bin, MySQL uses host_name-bin.index as the file name.

  • --log-bin-trust-function-creators[={0|1}]

    Command-Line Format--log-bin-trust-function-creators
    Option-File Formatlog-bin-trust-function-creators
    Option Sets VariableYes, log_bin_trust_function_creators
    Variable Namelog_bin_trust_function_creators
    Variable ScopeGlobal
    Dynamic VariableYes
     Permitted Values
    Typeboolean
    DefaultFALSE

    This option sets the corresponding log_bin_trust_function_creators system variable. If no argument is given, the option sets the variable to 1. log_bin_trust_function_creators affects how MySQL enforces restrictions on stored function and trigger creation. See Section 19.7, “Binary Logging of Stored Programs”.

Statement selection options.  The options in the following list affect which statements are written to the binary log, and thus sent by a replication master server to its slaves. There are also options for slave servers that control which statements received from the master should be executed or ignored. For details, see Section 17.1.3.3, “Replication Slave Options and Variables”.

  • --binlog-do-db=db_name

    This option affects binary logging in a manner similar to the way that --replicate-do-db affects replication.

    The effects of this option depend on whether the statement-based or row-based logging format is in use, in the same way that the effects of --replicate-do-db depend on whether statement-based or row-based replication is in use. You should keep in mind that the format used to log a given statement may not necessarily be the same as that indicated by the value of binlog_format. For example, DDL statements such as CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE are always logged as statements, without regard to the logging format in effect, so the following statement-based rules for --binlog-do-db always apply in determining whether or not the statement is logged.

    Statement-based logging.  Only those statements are written to the binary log where the default database (that is, the one selected by USE) is db_name. To specify more than one database, use this option multiple times, once for each database; however, doing so does not cause cross-database statements such as UPDATE some_db.some_table SET foo='bar' to be logged while a different database (or no database) is selected.

    Warning

    To specify multiple databases you must use multiple instances of this option. Because database names can contain commas, the list will be treated as the name of a single database if you supply a comma-separated list.

    An example of what does not work as you might expect when using statement-based logging: If the server is started with --binlog-do-db=sales and you issue the following statements, the UPDATE statement is not logged:

    USE prices;
    UPDATE sales.january SET amount=amount+1000;
    

    The main reason for this “just check the default database” behavior is that it is difficult from the statement alone to know whether it should be replicated (for example, if you are using multiple-table DELETE statements or multiple-table UPDATE statements that act across multiple databases). It is also faster to check only the default database rather than all databases if there is no need.

    Another case which may not be self-evident occurs when a given database is replicated even though it was not specified when setting the option. If the server is started with --binlog-do-db=sales, the following UPDATE statement is logged even though prices was not included when setting --binlog-do-db:

              
    USE sales;
    UPDATE prices.discounts SET percentage = percentage + 10;
    

    Because sales is the default database when the UPDATE statement is issued, the UPDATE is logged.

    Row-based logging.  Logging is restricted to database db_name. Only changes to tables belonging to db_name are logged; the default database has no effect on this. Suppose that the server is started with --binlog-do-db=sales and row-based logging is in effect, and then the following statements are executed:

    USE prices;
    UPDATE sales.february SET amount=amount+100;
    

    The changes to the february table in the sales database are logged in accordance with the UPDATE statement; this occurs whether or not the USE statement was issued. However, when using the row-based logging format and --binlog-do-db=sales, changes made by the following UPDATE are not logged:

    USE prices;
    UPDATE prices.march SET amount=amount-25;
    

    Even if the USE prices statement were changed to USE sales, the UPDATE statement's effects would still not be written to the binary log.

    Another important difference in --binlog-do-db handling for statement-based logging as opposed to the row-based logging occurs with regard to statements that refer to multiple databases. Suppose that the server is started with --binlog-do-db=db1, and the following statements are executed:

    USE db1;
    UPDATE db1.table1 SET col1 = 10, db2.table2 SET col2 = 20;
    

    If you are using statement-based logging, the updates to both tables are written to the binary log. However, when using the row-based format, only the changes to table1 are logged; table2 is in a different database, so it is not changed by the UPDATE. Now suppose that, instead of the USE db1 statement, a USE db4 statement had been used:

    USE db4;
    UPDATE db1.table1 SET col1 = 10, db2.table2 SET col2 = 20;
    

    In this case, the UPDATE statement is not written to the binary log when using statement-based logging. However, when using row-based logging, the change to table1 is logged, but not that to table2—in other words, only changes to tables in the database named by --binlog-do-db are logged, and the choice of default database has no effect on this behavior.

  • --binlog-ignore-db=db_name

    This option affects binary logging in a manner similar to the way that --replicate-ignore-db affects replication.

    The effects of this option depend on whether the statement-based or row-based logging format is in use, in the same way that the effects of --replicate-ignore-db depend on whether statement-based or row-based replication is in use. You should keep in mind that the format used to log a given statement may not necessarily be the same as that indicated by the value of binlog_format. For example, DDL statements such as CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE are always logged as statements, without regard to the logging format in effect, so the following statement-based rules for --binlog-ignore-db always apply in determining whether or not the statement is logged.

    Statement-based logging.  Tells the server to not log any statement where the default database (that is, the one selected by USE) is db_name.

    Row-based format.  Tells the server not to log updates to any tables in the database db_name. The current database has no effect.

    When using statement-based logging, the following example does not work as you might expect. Suppose that the server is started with --binlog-ignore-db=sales and you issue the following statements:

    USE prices;
    UPDATE sales.january SET amount=amount+1000;
    

    The UPDATE statement is logged in such a case because --binlog-ignore-db applies only to the default database (determined by the USE statement). Because the sales database was specified explicitly in the statement, the statement has not been filtered. However, when using row-based logging, the UPDATE statement's effects are not written to the binary log, which means that no changes to the sales.january table are logged; in this instance, --binlog-ignore-db=sales causes all changes made to tables in the master's copy of the sales database to be ignored for purposes of binary logging.

    To specify more than one database to ignore, use this option multiple times, once for each database. Because database names can contain commas, the list will be treated as the name of a single database if you supply a comma-separated list.

    You should not use this option if you are using cross-database updates and you do not want these updates to be logged.

Testing and debugging options.  The following binary log options are used in replication testing and debugging. They are not intended for use in normal operations.

  • --max-binlog-dump-events=N

    Command-Line Format--max-binlog-dump-events=#
    Option-File Formatmax-binlog-dump-events
     Permitted Values
    Typenumeric
    Default0

    This option is used internally by the MySQL test suite for replication testing and debugging.

  • --sporadic-binlog-dump-fail

    Command-Line Format--sporadic-binlog-dump-fail
    Option-File Formatsporadic-binlog-dump-fail
     Permitted Values
    Typeboolean
    DefaultFALSE

    This option is used internally by the MySQL test suite for replication testing and debugging.

System variables used with the binary log.  The following list describes system variables for controlling binary logging. They can be set at server startup and some of them can be changed at runtime using SET. Server options used to control binary logging are listed earlier in this section.

  • binlog_cache_size

    Command-Line Format--binlog_cache_size=#
    Option-File Formatbinlog_cache_size
    Option Sets VariableYes, binlog_cache_size
    Variable Namebinlog_cache_size
    Variable ScopeGlobal
    Dynamic VariableYes
     Permitted Values
    Platform Bit Size32
    Typenumeric
    Default32768
    Range4096-4294967295
     Permitted Values
    Platform Bit Size64
    Typenumeric
    Default32768
    Range4096-18446744073709547520

    The size of the cache to hold changes to the binary log during a transaction. A binary log cache is allocated for each client if the server supports any transactional storage engines and if the server has the binary log enabled (--log-bin option). If you often use large transactions, you can increase this cache size to get better performance. The Binlog_cache_use and Binlog_cache_disk_use status variables can be useful for tuning the size of this variable. See Section 5.2.4, “The Binary Log”.

    In MySQL 5.5.3, a separate binary log cache (the binary log statement cache) was introduced for nontransactional statements and in MySQL 5.5.3 through 5.5.8, this variable sets.the size for both caches. This means that, in these MySQL versions, the total memory used for these caches is double the value set for binlog_cache_size.

    Begining with MySQL 5.5.9, binlog_cache_size sets the size for the transaction cache only, and the size of the statement cache is governed by the binlog_stmt_cache_size system variable.

  • binlog_direct_non_transactional_updates

    Version Introduced5.5.2
    Command-Line Format--binlog_direct_non_transactional_updates[=value]
    Option-File Formatbinlog_direct_non_transactional_updates
    Option Sets VariableYes, binlog_direct_non_transactional_updates
    Variable Namebinlog_direct_non_transactional_updates
    Variable ScopeGlobal, Session
    Dynamic VariableYes
     Permitted Values
    Typeboolean
    DefaultOFF

    Due to concurrency issues, a slave can become inconsistent when a transaction contains updates to both transactional and non-transactional tables. MySQL tries to preserve causality among these statements by writing non-transactional statements to the transaction cache, which is flushed upon commit. However, problems arise when modifications done to nontransactional tables on behalf of a transaction become immediately visible to other connections because these changes may not be written immediately into the binary log.

    Beginning with MySQL 5.5.2, the binlog_direct_non_transactional_updates variable offers one possible workaround to this issue. By default, this variable is disabled. Enabling binlog_direct_non_transactional_updates causes updates to nontransactional tables to be written directly to the binary log, rather than to the transaction cache.

    binlog_direct_non_transactional_updates works only for statements that are replicated using the statement-based binary logging format; that is, it works only when the value of binlog_format is STATEMENT, or when binlog_format is MIXED and a given statement is being replicated using the statement-based format. This variable has no effect when the binary log format is ROW, or when binlog_format is set to MIXED and a given statement is replicated using the row-based format.

    Important

    Before enabling this variable, you must make certain that there are no dependencies between transactional and nontransactional tables; an example of such a dependency would be the statement INSERT INTO myisam_table SELECT * FROM innodb_table. Otherwise, such statements are likely to cause the slave to diverge from the master.

    Beginning with MySQL 5.5.5, this variable has no effect when the binary log format is ROW or MIXED. (Bug#51291)

  • binlog_format

    Command-Line Format--binlog-format=format
    Option-File Formatbinlog-format=format
    Option Sets VariableYes, binlog_format
    Variable Namebinlog_format
    Variable ScopeGlobal, Session
    Dynamic VariableYes
     Permitted Values
    Typeenumeration
    DefaultSTATEMENT
    Valid ValuesROW, STATEMENT, MIXED

    This variable sets the binary logging format, and can be any one of STATEMENT, ROW, or MIXED. See Section 17.1.2, “Replication Formats”. binlog_format is set by the --binlog-format option at startup, or by the binlog_format variable at runtime.

    In MySQL 5.5, the default format is STATEMENT.

    You must have the SUPER privilege to set either the global or session binlog_format value.

    The rules governing when changes to this variable take effect and how long the effect lasts are the same as for other MySQL server system variables. See Section 12.4.4, “SET Syntax”, for more information.

    When MIXED is specified, statement-based replication is used, except for cases where only row-based replication is guaranteed to lead to proper results. For example, this happens when statements contain user-defined functions (UDF) or the UUID() function. An exception to this rule is that MIXED always uses statement-based replication for stored functions and triggers.

    There are exceptions when you cannot switch the replication format at runtime:

    • From within a stored function or a trigger.

    • If the session is currently in row-based replication mode and has open temporary tables.

    • Beginning with MySQL 5.5.3, within a transaction. (Bug#47863)

    Trying to switch the format in those cases results in an error.

    The binary log format affects the behavior of the following server options:

    These effects are discussed in detail in the descriptions of the individual options.

  • max_binlog_cache_size

    Command-Line Format--max_binlog_cache_size=#
    Option-File Formatmax_binlog_cache_size
    Option Sets VariableYes, max_binlog_cache_size
    Variable Namemax_binlog_cache_size
    Variable ScopeGlobal
    Dynamic VariableYes
     Permitted Values
    Typenumeric
    Default18446744073709547520
    Range4096-18446744073709547520

    If a transaction requires more than this many bytes of memory, the server generates a Multi-statement transaction required more than 'max_binlog_cache_size' bytes of storage error. The minimum value is 4096. The maximum and default values are 4GB on 32-bit platforms and 16PB (petabytes) on 64-bit platforms.

    In MySQL 5.5.3, a separate binary log cache (the binary log statement cache) was introduced for nontransactional statements and in MySQL 5.5.3 through 5.5.8, this variable sets.the upper limit for both caches. This means that, in these MySQL versions, the effective maximum for these caches is double the value set for max_binlog_cache_size.

    Begining with MySQL 5.5.9, max_binlog_cache_size sets the size for the transaction cache only, and the upper limit for the statement cache is governed by the max_binlog_stmt_cache_size system variable.

  • max_binlog_stmt_cache_size

    Version Introduced5.5.9
    Command-Line Format--max_binlog_stmt_cache_size=#
    Option-File Formatmax_binlog_stmt_cache_size
    Option Sets VariableYes, max_binlog_stmt_cache_size
    Variable Namemax_binlog_stmt_cache_size
    Variable ScopeGlobal
    Dynamic VariableYes
     Permitted Values
    Typenumeric
    Default18446744073709547520
    Range4096-18446744073709547520

    If nontransaction statements within a transaction require more than this many bytes of memory, the server generates an error. The minimum value is 4096. The maximum and default values are 4GB on 32-bit platforms and 16PB (petabytes) on 64-bit platforms.

    In MySQL 5.5.3, a separate binary log cache (the binary log statement cache) was introduced for nontransactional statements and in MySQL 5.5.3 through 5.5.8, this variable sets.the upper limit for both caches. This means that, in these MySQL versions, the effective maximum for these caches is double the value set for max_binlog_cache_size.

    Begining with MySQL 5.5.9, max_binlog_stmt_cache_size sets the size for the transaction cache only, and the upper limit for the transaction cache is governed exclusively by the max_binlog_cache_size system variable.

  • max_binlog_size

    Command-Line Format--max_binlog_size=#
    Option-File Formatmax_binlog_size
    Option Sets VariableYes, max_binlog_size
    Variable Namemax_binlog_size
    Variable ScopeGlobal
    Dynamic VariableYes
     Permitted Values
    Typenumeric
    Default1073741824
    Range4096-1073741824

    If a write to the binary log causes the current log file size to exceed the value of this variable, the server rotates the binary logs (closes the current file and opens the next one). The minimum value is 4096 bytes. The maximum and default value is 1GB.

    A transaction is written in one chunk to the binary log, so it is never split between several binary logs. Therefore, if you have big transactions, you might see binary log files larger than max_binlog_size.

    If max_relay_log_size is 0, the value of max_binlog_size applies to relay logs as well.

  • binlog_stmt_cache_size

    Version Introduced5.5.9
    Command-Line Format--binlog_stmt_cache_size=#
    Option-File Formatbinlog_stmt_cache_size
    Option Sets VariableYes, binlog_stmt_cache_size
    Variable Namebinlog_stmt_cache_size
    Variable ScopeGlobal
    Dynamic VariableYes
     Permitted Values
    Platform Bit Size32
    Typenumeric
    Default32768
    Range4096-4294967295
     Permitted Values
    Platform Bit Size64
    Typenumeric
    Default32768
    Range4096-18446744073709547520

    Beginning with MySQL 5.5.9, this variable determines the size of the cache for the binary log to hold nontransactional statements issued during a transaction. In MySQL 5.5.3 and later, separate binary log transaction and statement caches are allocated for each client if the server supports any transactional storage engines and if the server has the binary log enabled (--log-bin option). If you often use large nontransactional statements during transactions, you can increase this cache size to get more performance. The Binlog_stmt_cache_use and Binlog_stmt_cache_disk_use status variables can be useful for tuning the size of this variable. See Section 5.2.4, “The Binary Log”.

    In MySQL 5.5.3 through 5.5.8, the size for both caches is set using binlog_cache_size. This means that, in these MySQL versions, the total memory used for these caches is double the value set for binlog_cache_size. Begining with MySQL 5.5.9, binlog_cache_size sets the size for the transaction cache only.

  • sync_binlog

    Command-Line Format--sync-binlog=#
    Option-File Formatsync_binlog
    Option Sets VariableYes, sync_binlog
    Variable Namesync_binlog
    Variable ScopeGlobal
    Dynamic VariableYes
     Permitted Values
    Platform Bit Size32
    Typenumeric
    Default0
    Range0-4294967295
     Permitted Values
    Platform Bit Size64
    Typenumeric
    Default0
    Range0-18446744073709547520

    If the value of this variable is greater than 0, the MySQL server synchronizes its binary log to disk (using fdatasync()) after every sync_binlog writes to the binary log. There is one write to the binary log per statement if autocommit is enabled, and one write per transaction otherwise. The default value of sync_binlog is 0, which does no synchronizing to disk—in this case, the server relies on the operating system to flush the binary log's contents from to time as for any other file. A value of 1 is the safest choice because in the event of a crash you lose at most one statement or transaction from the binary log. However, it is also the slowest choice (unless the disk has a battery-backed cache, which makes synchronization very fast).

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