The DELAYED option for the INSERT statement is a MySQL extension to standard SQL that is very useful if you have clients that cannot or need not wait for the INSERT to complete. This is a common situation when you use MySQL for logging and you also periodically run SELECT and UPDATE statements that take a long time to complete.

When a client uses INSERT DELAYED, it gets an okay from the server at once, and the row is queued to be inserted when the table is not in use by any other thread.

Another major benefit of using INSERT DELAYED is that inserts from many clients are bundled together and written in one block. This is much faster than performing many separate inserts.

Note that INSERT DELAYED is slower than a normal INSERT if the table is not otherwise in use. There is also the additional overhead for the server to handle a separate thread for each table for which there are delayed rows. This means that you should use INSERT DELAYED only when you are really sure that you need it.

The queued rows are held only in memory until they are inserted into the table. This means that if you terminate mysqld forcibly (for example, with kill -9) or if mysqld dies unexpectedly, any queued rows that have not been written to disk are lost.

There are some constraints on the use of DELAYED:

  • INSERT DELAYED works only with MyISAM, MEMORY, ARCHIVE, and BLACKHOLE tables. For engines that do not support DELAYED, an error occurs.

  • An error occurs for INSERT DELAYED if used with a table that has been locked with LOCK TABLES because the insert must be handled by a separate thread, not by the session that holds the lock.

  • For MyISAM tables, if there are no free blocks in the middle of the data file, concurrent SELECT and INSERT statements are supported. Under these circumstances, you very seldom need to use INSERT DELAYED with MyISAM.

  • INSERT DELAYED should be used only for INSERT statements that specify value lists. The server ignores DELAYED for INSERT ... SELECT or INSERT ... ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE statements.

  • Because the INSERT DELAYED statement returns immediately, before the rows are inserted, you cannot use LAST_INSERT_ID() to get the AUTO_INCREMENT value that the statement might generate.

  • DELAYED rows are not visible to SELECT statements until they actually have been inserted.

  • Prior to MySQL 5.5.7, INSERT DELAYED was treated as a normal INSERT if the statement inserted multiple rows, binary logging was enabled, and the global logging format was statement-based (that is, whenever binlog_format was set to STATEMENT). Beginning with MySQL 5.5.7, INSERT DELAYED is always handled as a simple INSERT (that is, without the DELAYED option) whenever the value of binlog_format is STATEMENT or MIXED. (In the latter case, the statement no longer triggers a switch to row-based logging, and so is logged using the statement-based format.)

    This does not apply when using row-based binary logging mode (binlog_format set to ROW), in which INSERT DELAYED statements are always executed using the DELAYED option as specified, and logged as row-update events.

  • DELAYED is ignored on slave replication servers, so that INSERT DELAYED is treated as a normal INSERT on slaves. This is because DELAYED could cause the slave to have different data than the master.

  • Pending INSERT DELAYED statements are lost if a table is write locked and ALTER TABLE is used to modify the table structure.

  • INSERT DELAYED is not supported for views.

  • INSERT DELAYED is not supported for partitioned tables.

The following describes in detail what happens when you use the DELAYED option to INSERT or REPLACE. In this description, the “thread” is the thread that received an INSERT DELAYED statement and “handler” is the thread that handles all INSERT DELAYED statements for a particular table.

  • When a thread executes a DELAYED statement for a table, a handler thread is created to process all DELAYED statements for the table, if no such handler already exists.

  • The thread checks whether the handler has previously acquired a DELAYED lock; if not, it tells the handler thread to do so. The DELAYED lock can be obtained even if other threads have a READ or WRITE lock on the table. However, the handler waits for all ALTER TABLE locks or FLUSH TABLES statements to finish, to ensure that the table structure is up to date.

  • The thread executes the INSERT statement, but instead of writing the row to the table, it puts a copy of the final row into a queue that is managed by the handler thread. Any syntax errors are noticed by the thread and reported to the client program.

  • The client cannot obtain from the server the number of duplicate rows or the AUTO_INCREMENT value for the resulting row, because the INSERT returns before the insert operation has been completed. (If you use the C API, the mysql_info() function does not return anything meaningful, for the same reason.)

  • The binary log is updated by the handler thread when the row is inserted into the table. In case of multiple-row inserts, the binary log is updated when the first row is inserted.

  • Each time that delayed_insert_limit rows are written, the handler checks whether any SELECT statements are still pending. If so, it permits these to execute before continuing.

  • When the handler has no more rows in its queue, the table is unlocked. If no new INSERT DELAYED statements are received within delayed_insert_timeout seconds, the handler terminates.

  • If more than delayed_queue_size rows are pending in a specific handler queue, the thread requesting INSERT DELAYED waits until there is room in the queue. This is done to ensure that mysqld does not use all memory for the delayed memory queue.

  • The handler thread shows up in the MySQL process list with delayed_insert in the Command column. It is killed if you execute a FLUSH TABLES statement or kill it with KILL thread_id. However, before exiting, it first stores all queued rows into the table. During this time it does not accept any new INSERT statements from other threads. If you execute an INSERT DELAYED statement after this, a new handler thread is created.

    Note that this means that INSERT DELAYED statements have higher priority than normal INSERT statements if there is an INSERT DELAYED handler running. Other update statements have to wait until the INSERT DELAYED queue is empty, someone terminates the handler thread (with KILL thread_id), or someone executes a FLUSH TABLES.

  • The following status variables provide information about INSERT DELAYED statements.

    Status VariableMeaning
    Delayed_insert_threadsNumber of handler threads
    Delayed_writesNumber of rows written with INSERT DELAYED
    Not_flushed_delayed_rowsNumber of rows waiting to be written

    You can view these variables by issuing a SHOW STATUS statement or by executing a mysqladmin extended-status command.

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